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Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2006 Nov;48(6):201-13.

[Concept analysis of presenteeism and its possible applications in Japanese occupational health].

[Article in Japanese]

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Department of Health Promotion Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan.


The purposes of this systematic review were to define the concept of presenteeism in accordance with Rodgers' concept analysis methods and to examine the possibility of applying the concept to Japanese occupational health. Using presenteeism as a search term, articles were selected from the MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Japana Centra Revuo Medicina databases. The definitions, antecedents, and consequences of presenteeism were extracted from the selected articles and were examined in order to determine how presenteeism was used in the literature. A total of forty-four articles published from 1955 to 2005 were selected for analysis. Based on the extracted definitions, four attributes of presenteeism were identified, and presenteeism was defined as "a self-rated measurable loss of work performance due to health problems in the workplace." Antecedents of presenteeism were classified into occupational and personal factors. These factors affected the decisions of workers with health problems regarding whether or not to go to work. Consequences of presenteeism were the aggravation of quality of life and health status, increases in health-related costs, adverse effects on colleagues, increases in occupational accidents, and deterioration of the quality of products and services. Therefore, the reduction of presenteeism is considered to be an important challenge for occupational health professionals. Possible applications of the concept of presenteeism in Japanese occupational health are the following: 1) measurement of presenteeism and examination of its related factors, 2) identification of factors that discourage workers from taking adequate sickness absenteeism, and 3) design of occupational health activity plans and the evaluation of such activities. In order to measure presenteeism in Japan, it is necessary to introduce Euro-American instruments suitable for the purpose of measuring presenteeism and to develop new measures. Occupational health professionals can incorporate assessments of presenteeism in their occupational health activities by considering not only the individual state of presenteeism, but also the state of the entire organization and interaction among workers' health problems, occupational factors, and personal factors. Moreover, if the loss of work performance due to presenteeism is converted to financial loss, it is considered that the necessity and the validity of workplace-based health activities will be clarified.

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