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J Leukoc Biol. 2007 Mar;81(3):835-44. Epub 2006 Dec 14.

Role of protein tyrosine phosphatases in the regulation of interferon-{gamma}-induced macrophage nitric oxide generation: implication of ERK pathway and AP-1 activation.

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Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie and Département de Biologie Médicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Pavillon CHUL, Université Laval, Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada.


NO is a potent molecule involved in the cytotoxic events mediated by macrophages (MØ) against microorganisms. We reported previously that inhibition of MØ protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) mediates a protective effect against Leishmania infection, which was NO-dependent. Herein, we show that the PTP inhibitors of the peroxovanadium (pV) class, bpV(phen) and bpV(pic), can similarly increase murine MØ IFN-gamma-induced NO generation. Using various second messenger (JAK2, MEK, Erk1/Erk2, and p38) antagonists, we found that the Erk1/Erk2 pathway was the principal pathway submitted to regulation by PTPs in the context of IFN-gamma-driven MØ activation and increase in NO production. We observed that bpV(phen) increases inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, resulting in enhanced NO production, whereas the bpV(pic) increase of NO production does not seem to result from a modulation of iNOS expression. Transcription factors STAT-1alpha and NF-kappaB, recognized for their importance in NO generation, were not affected by the pV treatment. However, AP-1 was strongly activated by bpV(phen) but not by bpV(pic). Collectively, our results suggest that increased IFN-gamma-induced NO production, observed after bpV(phen) treatment, involves the activation of the transcription factor AP-1 by Erk1/Erk2- and stress-activated protein kinase/JNK-dependent transduction mechanisms.

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