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Int Rev Immunol. 2006 Sep-Dec;25(5-6):321-52.

GM-CSF gene-modifed cancer cell immunotherapies: of mice and men.

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Cell Genesys, Inc., San Francisco, California 94080, USA.


GVAX cancer immunotherapies are composed of whole tumor cells genetically modified to secrete the immune stimulatory cytokine, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and then irradiated to prevent further cell division. Both autologous (patient specific) and allogeneic (non-patient specific) GVAX platforms have been evaluated either as single agents or in combination with other immunomodulatory strategies. Many early-phase clinical trials have now been completed. Results have consistently demonstrated a favorable safety profile manifested primarily by injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms. Consistent evidence of immune activation and clinical activity, including radiologic tumor regressions, has been seen across multiple cancer indications in both early- and late-stage disease. Phase 3 trials evaluating an allogeneic GVAX immunotherapy product in prostate cancer are under way.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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