Send to

Choose Destination
Skull Base. 2001 Aug;11(3):207-18.

Carotid-cavernous fistulas: pathogenesis and routes of approach to endovascular treatment.


The etiology, classification, clinical presentation, complications, and intravascular routes to image and treat carotid-cavernous fistulas percutaneously are described. Endoarterial and transvenous approaches (through the jugular, inferior petrosal, or cavernous veins) are discussed in relation to the etiology, size, and characteristics of the fistulas, as well as in relation to the planned therapeutic approach and its possible complications. Possible outcomes, with particular attention to the internal carotid circulation, side effects, and complications also are discussed in relation to etiology and type of fistula. Four exemplary cases are presented.


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center