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J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007 Jan;70(1):7-18.

Risk of selected birth defects with prenatal illicit drug use, Hawaii, 1986-2002.

Author information

1
Hawaii Birth Defects Program, Honolulu, Hawaii 96817-5157, USA.

Abstract

The literature on the association between prenatal illicit drug use and birth defects is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of a variety of birth defects with prenatal illicit drug use. Data were derived from an active, population-based adverse pregnancy outcome registry. Cases were all infants and fetuses with any of 54 selected birth defects delivered during 1986-2002. The prenatal methamphetamine, cocaine, or marijuana use rates were calculated for each birth defect and compared to the prenatal use rates among all deliveries. Among all deliveries, the prenatal use rate was 0.52% for methamphetamine, 0.18% for cocaine, and 0.26% for marijuana. Methamphetamine rates were significantly higher than expected for 14 (26%) of the birth defects. Cocaine rates were significantly higher than expected for 13 (24%) of the birth defects. Marijuana rates were significantly higher than expected for 21 (39%) of the birth defects. Increased risk for the three drugs occurred predominantly among birth defects associated with the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, oral clefts, and limbs. There was also increased risk of marijuana use among a variety of birth defects associated with the gastrointestinal system. Prenatal uses of methamphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana are all associated with increased risk of a variety of birth defects. The affected birth defects are primarily associated with particular organ systems.

PMID:
17162495
DOI:
10.1080/15287390600748799
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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