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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Dec 5;48(11):2293-300. Epub 2006 Nov 13.

A prospective study of the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in 1,125 hypertensive patients.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

We prospectively investigated the prevalence of curable forms of primary aldosteronism (PA) in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

BACKGROUND:

The prevalence of curable forms of PA is currently unknown, although retrospective data suggest that it is not as low as commonly perceived.

METHODS:

Consecutive hypertensive patients referred to 14 hypertension centers underwent a diagnostic protocol composed of measurement of Na+ and K+ in serum and 24-h urine, sitting plasma renin activity, and aldosterone at baseline and after 50 mg captopril. The patients with an aldosterone/renin ratio >40 at baseline, and/or >30 after captopril, and/or a probability of PA (by a logistic discriminant function) > or =50% underwent imaging tests and adrenal vein sampling (AVS) or adrenocortical scintigraphy to identify the underlying adrenal pathology. An aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) was diagnosed in patients who in addition to excess autonomous aldosterone secretion showed: 1) lateralized aldosterone secretion at AVS or adrenocortical scintigraphy, 2) adenoma at surgery and pathology, and 3) a blood pressure decrease after adrenalectomy. Evidence of excess autonomous aldosterone secretion without such criteria led to a diagnosis of idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA).

RESULTS:

A total of 1,180 patients (age 46 +/- 12 years) were enrolled; a conclusive diagnosis was attained in 1,125 (95.3%). Of these, 54 (4.8%) had an APA and 72 (6.4%) had an IHA. There were more APA (62.5%) and fewer IHA cases (37.5%) at centers where AVS was available (p = 0.002); the opposite occurred where AVS was unavailable.

CONCLUSIONS:

In newly diagnosed hypertensive patients referred to hypertension centers, the prevalence of APA is high (4.8%). The availability of AVS is essential for an accurate identification of the adrenocortical pathologies underlying PA.

PMID:
17161262
DOI:
10.1016/j.jacc.2006.07.059
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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