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J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 9;282(6):3450-7. Epub 2006 Dec 7.

Three mammalian lipins act as phosphatidate phosphatases with distinct tissue expression patterns.

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Department of Human Genetics and Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.


We previously identified mutations in the Lpin1 gene, encoding lipin-1, as the underlying cause of lipodystrophy in the fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutant mouse. Lipin-1 is normally expressed at high levels in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and deficiency in the fld mouse causes impaired adipose tissue development, insulin resistance, and altered energy expenditure. We also identified two additional lipin protein family members of unknown function, lipin-2 and lipin-3. Han et al. (Han, G. S., Wu, W. I., and Carman, G. M. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 9210-9218) recently demonstrated that the single lipin homolog in yeast, Smp2, exhibits phosphatidate phosphatase type-1 (PAP1) activity, which has a key role in glycerolipid synthesis. Here we demonstrate that lipin-1 accounts for all of the PAP1 activity in white and brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. However, livers of lipin-1-deficient mice exhibited normal PAP1 activity, indicating that other members of the lipin protein family could have PAP1 activity. Consistent with this possibility, recombinant lipin-2 and lipin-3 possess PAP1 activity. Each of the three lipin family members showed Mg2+-dependent activity that was specific for phosphatidate under the conditions employed. The different lipins showed distinct tissue expression patterns. Our results establish the three mammalian lipin proteins as PAP1 enzymes and explain the biochemical basis for lipodystrophy in the lipin-1-deficient fld mouse.

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