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Gene. 2007 Jan 31;387(1-2):133-40. Epub 2006 Nov 10.

The evolution of High Mobility Group Box (HMGB) chromatin proteins in multicellular animals.

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  • 1Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Chromatin Dynamics Unit, via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milano, Italy.


Mammalian HMGB proteins are abundant chromatin components, and are characterized by the presence of 2 HMG-box domains and an acidic tail. HMG boxes are present in a large number of DNA-binding proteins, and HMGB chromatin proteins represent a small and specific subset of HMG-box proteins. The comparison of DNA sequences that code for HMG-box proteins suggests that the ancestral HMG box was coded by an intronless gene, which picked up one or more introns during its radiation. Canonical HMGB proteins are only present in multicellular animals, from sponges onwards, and appear to have arisen through the fusion of two different genes, each coding for one of the boxes. The organization of HMGB genes was very conserved during Metazoan evolution, with the only deviations appearing in Caenorhabditis and Dipteran (Drosophila and Anopheles) species.

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