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FEMS Yeast Res. 2006 Dec;6(8):1243-53.

Geotrichum candidum dominates in yeast population dynamics in Livarot, a French red-smear cheese.

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1
Laboratoire de Microbiologie Alimentaire, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie Caen cedex, France.

Abstract

The diversity and dynamics of yeast populations in four batches of Livarot cheese at three points of ripening were determined. Nine different species were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and/or sequencing, and each batch had its own unique yeast community. A real-time PCR method was developed to quantify the four main yeast species: Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces sp. and Yarrowia lipolytica. Culture and molecular approaches showed that G. candidum was the dominant yeast in Livarot cheese. When D. hansenii was added as a commercial strain, it codominated with G. candidum. Kluyveromyces lactis was present only at the start of ripening. Yarrowia lipolytica appeared primarily at the end of ripening. We propose a scheme for the roles and dynamics of the principal Livarot yeasts.

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