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J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006 Dec;74(6):994-1005.

Attachment-based intervention for enhancing sensitive discipline in mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children at risk for externalizing behavior problems: a randomized controlled trial.

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Centre for Child and Family StudiesLeiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.


The home-based intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) was tested in a randomized controlled trial with 237 families screened for their 1- to 3-year-old children's relatively high scores on externalizing behavior. VIPP-SD, based on attachment theory and coercion theory, focuses on mirroring and discussing actual parent-child interactions in six 1.5-hr sessions with individual families at home. VIPP-SD proved to be effective in enhancing maternal attitudes toward sensitivity and sensitive discipline and in promoting sensitive discipline interactions in the intervention group as compared with the control group. Moreover, in families with more marital discord and in families with more daily hassles, the intervention resulted in a decrease of overactive problem behaviors in the children. The authors conclude that VIPP-SD should become an important module in attachment-based interventions.

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