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Langmuir. 2006 Dec 19;22(26):10994-1001.

Aggregation and deposition kinetics of fullerene (C60) nanoparticles.

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering Program, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8286, USA.


The aggregation and deposition kinetics of fullerene C60 nanoparticles have been investigated over a wide range of monovalent and divalent electrolyte concentrations by employing time-resolved dynamic light scattering (DLS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), respectively. Aggregation kinetics of the fullerene nanoparticles exhibited reaction-limited (slow) and diffusion-limited (fast) regimes in the presence of both electrolytes, having critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) of 120 and 4.8 mM for the monovalent (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl2) salts, respectively. The measured stability ratios of the aggregating fullerene nanoparticles were in very good agreement with Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, with a derived Hamaker constant of 6.7 x 10-21 J for the fullerene nanoparticles in aqueous medium. For the deposition kinetics studies, the rate of fullerene nanoparticle deposition increased with increasing electrolyte concentrations, as was indicated in the aggregation kinetics results. However, at electrolyte concentrations approaching or exceeding the CCC, the rate of deposition dropped sharply due to significant concurrent aggregation of the fullerene nanoparticles. The deposition of the fullerene nanoparticles was further shown to be mostly irreversible, with immediate detachment of the nanoparticles observed only when exposed to a solution of high pH.

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