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Am J Med Genet A. 2007 Jan 1;143A(1):58-63.

Unusually severe expression of craniofacial features in Aarskog-Scott syndrome due to a novel truncating mutation of the FGD1 gene.

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Department of Oncology, UOC Molecular Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Siena, Italy.


Aarskog-Scott syndrome (AAS) is a rare, clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by facial dysmorphic features, short stature, brachydactyly, and genital anomalies. The X-linked form is caused by mutations of the FGD1 gene. Although clinical manifestations and diagnostic criteria are well established, diagnosis is not simple, as the spectrum of phenotypical features may be extremely variable. Here, we report on the clinical and genetic characterization of a family in which molecular analyses revealed the inheritance of a novel truncating mutation of the FDG1 gene (c.945insC) in two affected brothers, with one of them displaying unusually severe craniofacial abnormalities. This previously unreported combination of anomalies might be due to the occurrence of two distinct disorders (AAS and hemifacial microsomia) or may represent an extension of the AAS phenotypic spectrum. Our findings highlight the phenotypic heterogeneity of AAS, supporting the opinion that the FGD1 mutations result in a broad spectrum of severity and, in some cases, may express a clinical appearance very different than typically described.

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