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Biol Cybern. 2006 Dec;95(6):537-54. Epub 2006 Dec 7.

Oscillations and oscillatory behavior in small neural circuits.

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Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, USA.


In order to determine the dynamical properties of central pattern generators (CPGs), we have examined the lobster stomatogastric ganglion using the tools of nonlinear dynamics. The lobster pyloric and gastric mill central pattern generators can be analyzed at both the cellular and network levels because they are small, i.e., contain only 25 neurons between them and each neuron and synapse are repeatedly identifiable from animal to animal. We discuss how the biophysical properties of each neuron and synapse in the two circuits act cooperatively to generate two different patterns of sequential activity, how these patterns are altered by neuromodulators and perturbed by noise and sensory inputs. Finally, we show how simplified Hindmarsh-Rose models can be made into analog electronic neurons that mimic the lobster neurons and in addition be incorporated into artificial CPGs with robotic applications.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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