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Surg Oncol. 2006 Nov;15(3):117-28. Epub 2006 Dec 5.

The metastatic cascade in prostate cancer.

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  • 1Prostate Cancer Research Centre, University College London, The Institute of Urology, 67 Riding House Street, London W1W 7EJ, UK.


Morbidity and mortality due to prostate cancer are mainly a result of prostate cancer metastases. After the initial neoplastic transformation of cells, the process of metastasis involves a series of sequential steps, which involve neoangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, loss of adhesion with migration away from the primary tumour and entry into the systemic vasculature or lymphatics. Metastatic growth in sites such as lymph nodes and bone marrow then involves the specific non-random homing of prostate cancer cells. An appreciation and understanding of this metastatic cascade in relation to prostate cancer is clinically important in order to stratify men with prostate cancer into prognostic groups. Moreover, it is crucial in the future development of therapies that can prevent metastases.

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