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Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006 Dec;13(6):947-55.

Reduction of global cardiovascular risk with nutritional versus nutritional plus physical activity intervention in Colombian adults.

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1
Lipids and Diabetes Division, Physiological Sciences Department, National University of Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. comendivila@unal.edu.co

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity/mortality in non-developed countries. Reports of the effects of non-pharmacological interventions on global cardiovascular risk in Latin American adults, however, are scarce.

OBJECTIVE:

To compare the change in global cardiovascular risk induced by a tailored, Adult Treatment Panel-III compliant nutrition program versus the same program with addition of supervised, regular physical activity in Colombian adults.

DESIGN:

The study was a randomized, controlled trial.

METHODS:

Seventy-five Colombian patients aged 40-70 years and with Framingham-estimated global cardiovascular risk of 1% or higher were randomly assigned to a nutritional intervention program or a combined nutritional intervention-physical exercise program for 16 weeks. Patients underwent medical and anthropometric evaluation, bioelectrical impedance, lipid profile and Framingham global cardiovascular risk determination at baseline and at the end of follow-up.

RESULTS:

The groups were comparable at baseline; 21 persons in the nutritional intervention program group and 27 in the nutritional intervention-physical exercise program group completed the follow-up. Global cardiovascular risk modification (mean+/-SE) was -2.04+/-1.1 absolute percentage points (relative reduction 19.6%) in the nutritional intervention-physical exercise program group, compared with 0.23+/-0.9 (relative increase 2.8%) in the nutritional intervention program group. Mean difference in global cardiovascular risk modification between groups reached borderline statistical significance in ANCOVA (P=0.054). Reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar, but the nutritional intervention-physical exercise program group achieved significantly greater improvements in body weight, body mass index, percentage body fat and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data suggest that a structured nutritional intervention-physical exercise program is more efficacious than a nutritional intervention program in the reduction of global cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular risk factors, in only 16 weeks.

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