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Metabolism. 2006 Dec;55(12):1645-52.

The effect of spironolactone on circulating adipocytokines in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by diabetic nephropathy.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya 343-8555, Japan.


Angiotensin II can influence adipocytokine levels in adipose tissue, but the association between aldosterone, which mediates the effect of angiotensin II, and adipocytokines has yet to be fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the effect of spironolactone, a representative aldosterone blocker, on adipocytokines such as adiponectin, visfatin, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy: the study included 33 patients, 22 of whom were randomly assigned to the spironolactone (50 mg/d) group and 11 to the amlodipine (2.5 mg/d) group. Data were collected at baseline and after 3 months of treatment and compared with baseline data for 25 age-matched healthy subjects. A significant decrease in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in the spironolactone group was observed (22.6 +/- 13.4 to 19.2 +/- 11.3 ng/mL, P =.0323), but this did not occur in the amlodipine group. Adiponectin and visfatin levels did not change in the spironolactone and amlodipine groups, but significant increases in these adipocytokines were found in a subgroup of patients in the spironolactone group with glycated hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) 8.0% or greater (11.8 +/- 6.4 to 13.3 +/- 7.4 microg/mL, P = .0344; and 1.39 +/- 0.92 to 2.26 +/- 0.76 ng/mL, P =.0397, respectively). The tumor necrosis factor alpha level at baseline exceeded the lower detection limit of the assay in only 6 patients in the spironolactone group, and no change occurred in these patients. Moreover, neither spironolactone nor amlodipine therapy caused a change in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein or soluble CD40 ligand, but a significant decrease in the level of brain natriuretic peptide was found in the spironolactone group only. Furthermore, significant increases of HbA(1c), creatinine, potassium, and aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity, and a decrease in urinary albumin excretion were also observed only in the spironolactone group. The number of patients with HbA(1c) 8.0% or greater increased after spironolactone treatment. A significant decrease in systolic but not in diastolic blood pressure was observed in both treatment groups. In conclusion, our data suggest that in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by diabetic nephropathy, spironolactone can decrease plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and brain natriuretic peptide levels in addition to urinary albumin excretion, and systolic blood pressure, and that in patients with poor glycemic control, spironolactone can increase the levels of adiponectin and visfatin. However, the significant elevation of HbA(1c) levels by spironolactone should be emphasized.

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