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J Hazard Mater. 2007 Jun 1;144(1-2):458-63. Epub 2006 Nov 3.

Ultra-trace determination of silver in water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after preconcentration with a ligand-less cloud point extraction methodology.

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Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.


A very simple and ligand-less cloud point extraction (CPE) methodology for the preconcentration of ultra-trace amounts of silver as a prior step to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) has been developed. The method is based on the extraction of silver at pH 9 by using non-ionic surfactant polyethyleneglycolmono-p-nonylphenylether (PONPE 7.5) without adding any chelating agent. Several important variables that affect the CPE efficiency and ETAAS signal were investigated and optimized. The preconcentration of 15 ml sample solution allowed us to achieve an enhancement factor of 60. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system was linear in the range of 5-100 ngl(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991. The lower limit of detection (3s) obtained in the optimal conditions was 1.2 ngl(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for eight replicate determinations at 30 ngl(-1) Ag level was 4.2%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the ultra-trace determination of silver in water samples.

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