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Hum Mol Genet. 2007 Jan 1;16(1):15-23. Epub 2006 Nov 29.

The DYRK1A gene, encoded in chromosome 21 Down syndrome critical region, bridges between beta-amyloid production and tau phosphorylation in Alzheimer disease.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2-D3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Abstract

We scanned throughout chromosome 21 to assess genetic associations with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) using 374 Japanese patients and 375 population-based controls, because trisomy 21 is known to be associated with early deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) in the brain. Among 417 markers spanning 33 Mb, 22 markers showed associations with either the allele or the genotype frequency (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis with age, sex and apolipoprotein E (APOE)-epsilon4 dose supported genetic risk of 17 markers, of which eight markers were linked to the SAMSN1, PRSS7, NCAM2, RUNX1, DYRK1A and KCNJ6 genes. In logistic regression, the DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 1A) gene, located in the Down syndrome critical region, showed the highest significance [OR = 2.99 (95% CI: 1.72-5.19), P = 0.001], whereas the RUNX1 gene showed a high odds ratio [OR = 23.3 (95% CI: 2.76-196.5), P = 0.038]. DYRK1A mRNA level in the hippocampus was significantly elevated in patients with AD when compared with pathological controls (P < 0.01). DYRK1A mRNA level was upregulated along with an increase in the Abeta-level in the brain of transgenic mice, overproducing Abeta at 9 months of age. In neuroblastoma cells, Abeta induced an increase in the DYRK1A transcript, which also led to tau phosphorylation at Thr212 under the overexpression of tau. Therefore, the upregulation of DYRK1A transcription results from Abeta loading, further leading to tau phosphorylation. Our result indicates that DYRK1A could be a key molecule bridging between beta-amyloid production and tau phosphorylation in AD.

PMID:
17135279
DOI:
10.1093/hmg/ddl437
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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