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J Cell Biochem. 2007 Apr 15;100(6):1376-86.

GCIP/CCNDBP1, a helix-loop-helix protein, suppresses tumorigenesis.

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Institute of Biosciences and Technology, and Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.


Deletions and/or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 15 (15q15 and 15q21) have been found in several human tumors, including carcinomas of the colorectum, breast, lung, prostate, and bladder, suggesting the presence of potential tumor suppressor gene(s) in this particular region of chromosome 15. GCIP also called CCNDBP1, DIP1, or HHM, localized at chromosome 15q15, is a recently identified helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (HLH-ZIP) protein without a basic region like the Id family of proteins. In this study, we reported that the expression of GCIP was significantly downregulated in several different human tumors, including breast tumor, prostate tumor, and colon tumors. In human colon tumors, both mRNA and protein expression levels of GCIP were decreased significantly compared to the normal tissues. Treatment of colon cancer cells SW480 with sodium butyrate (NaB), which induces colon cancer cell differentiation, can induce the upregulation of GCIP expression, suggesting that the protein functions as a negative regulator in cell proliferation. Overexpression of GCIP in SW480 colon cancer cell line resulted in a significant inhibition on tumor cell colony formation, while silencing of GCIP expression by siRNA can promote cell colony formation. Furthermore, overexpression of GCIP inhibited the transcriptional activity of cyclin D1 promoter and the expression of cyclin D1 protein in the cell. Finally, we demonstrate that GCIP specifically interacts with one of the class III HDAC proteins, SirT6, which is important for maintaining genome stability. Together, our data suggest a possible function of GCIP in tumor suppression.

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