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Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 May;31(5):731-42. Epub 2006 Nov 28.

The entero-insular axis and adipose tissue-related factors in the prediction of weight gain in humans.

Author information

1
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences de la Santé, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Université de Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.

Abstract

Obesity has now reached epidemic proportions. Epidemiological studies in the past decades have shown that adults gain weight and adiposity from the early twenties until their sixties. In the paediatric population, growing numbers of children and adolescents put on unhealthy weight. Many environmental, socio-economical and biological determinants that predispose to weight gain have been identified thus far. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge on the role of the circulating levels of adipokines and other entero-insular hormones and biological markers of obesity to predict weight gain in humans. The review focuses on relationship between hormonal and biochemical markers (insulin, insulin-like growth factors, gastrointestinal hormones, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, inflammatory proteins and cytokines) and weight gain in prospective studies. The complex relationships displayed by these hormonal factors with future weight gain in humans are critically reviewed and integrative models are proposed. Overall, most of the studies reported to date made adjustments for baseline body mass index but failed to consider dietary intake and physical activity as confounding factors. Outstanding questions are raised and new directions for future prospective studies are proposed in order to improve our understanding of the role of biological determinants of energy balance and development of obesity in humans.

PMID:
17130851
DOI:
10.1038/sj.ijo.0803500
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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