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Diabetes. 2006 Dec;55(12):3344-50.

Feasibility of automating insulin delivery for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.

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Medtronic MiniMed, 18000 Devonshire St., Northridge, CA 91325, USA.


An automated closed-loop insulin delivery system based on subcutaneous glucose sensing and subcutaneous insulin delivery was evaluated in 10 subjects with type 1 diabetes (2 men, 8 women, mean [+/-SD] age 43.4 +/- 11.4 years, duration of diabetes 18.2 +/- 13.5 years). Closed-loop control was assessed over approximately 30 h and compared with open-loop control assessed over 3 days. Closed-loop insulin delivery was calculated using a model of the beta-cell's multiphasic insulin response to glucose. Plasma glucose was 160 +/- 66 mg/dl at the start of closed loop and was thereafter reduced to 71 +/- 19 by 1:00 p.m. (preprandial lunch). Fasting glucose the subsequent morning on closed loop was not different from target (124 +/- 25 vs. 120 mg/dl, respectively; P > 0.05). Mean glucose levels were not different between the open and closed loop (133 +/- 63 vs. 133 +/- 52 mg/dl, respectively; P > 0.65). However, glucose was within the range 70-180 mg/dl 75% of the time under closed loop versus 63% for open loop. Incidence of biochemical hypoglycemia (blood glucose <60 mg/dl) was similar under the two treatments. There were no episodes of severe hypoglycemia. The data provide proof of concept that glycemic control can be achieved by a completely automated external closed-loop insulin delivery system.

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