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Biochemistry. 2006 Dec 5;45(48):14552-8.

Energy-linked binding of Pi is required for continuous steady-state proton-translocating ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by F0.F1 ATP synthase.

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Department of Biochemistry, School of Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992, Russian Federation.


The presence of medium Pi (half-maximal concentration of 20 microM at pH 8.0) was found to be required for the prevention of the rapid decline in the rate of proton-motive force (pmf)-induced ATP hydrolysis by Fo.F1 ATP synthase in coupled vesicles derived from Paracoccus denitrificans. The initial rate of the reaction was independent of Pi. The apparent affinity of Pi for its "ATPase-protecting" site was strongly decreased with partial uncoupling of the vesicles. Pi did not reactivate ATPase when added after complete time-dependent deactivation during the enzyme turnover. Arsenate and sulfate, which was shown to compete with Pi when Fo.F1 catalyzed oxidative phosphorylation, substituted for Pi as the protectors of ATPase against the turnover-dependent deactivation. Under conditions where the enzyme turnover was not permitted (no ATP was present), Pi was not required for the pmf-induced activation of ATPase, whereas the presence of medium Pi (or sulfate) delayed the spontaneous deactivation of the enzyme which was induced by the membrane de-energization. The data are interpreted to suggest that coupled and uncoupled ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by Fo.F1 ATP synthases proceeds via different intermediates. Pi dissociates after ADP if the coupling membrane is energized (no E.ADP intermediate exists). Pi dissociates before ADP during uncoupled ATP hydrolysis, leaving the E.ADP intermediate which is transformed into the inactive ADP(Mg2+)-inhibited form of the enzyme (latent ATPase).

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