Send to

Choose Destination
EMBO J. 2006 Dec 13;25(24):5775-82. Epub 2006 Nov 23.

ATR-dependent phosphorylation and activation of ATM in response to UV treatment or replication fork stalling.

Author information

Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex, UK.


The phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase-like kinases (PIKKs), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) regulate parallel damage response signalling pathways. ATM is reported to be activated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), whereas ATR is recruited to single-stranded regions of DNA. Although the two pathways were considered to function independently, recent studies have demonstrated that ATM functions upstream of ATR following exposure to ionising radiation (IR) in S/G2. Here, we show that ATM phosphorylation at Ser1981, a characterised autophosphorylation site, is ATR-dependent and ATM-independent following replication fork stalling or UV treatment. In contrast to IR-induced ATM-S1981 phosphorylation, UV-induced ATM-S1981 phosphorylation does not require the Nbs1 C-terminus or Mre11. ATR-dependent phosphorylation of ATM activates ATM phosphorylation of Chk2, which has an overlapping function with Chk1 in regulating G2/M checkpoint arrest. Our findings provide insight into the interplay between the PIKK damage response pathways.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms


Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center