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Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Feb;22(2):457-64. Epub 2006 Nov 23.

The periodontal status of pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease and maintenance dialysis patients.

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Department of Nephrology and Transplantology with Dialysis Unit, Medical University, 14 Zurawia Street, 15-540 Bialystok, Poland.



Periodontitis contributes to generalized inflammation and development of systemic diseases, including atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Its extent in maintenance haemodialysis (HD) patients is disputable and not known in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.


One hundred and six patients (35 on HD, mean age, 56 years; 33 on CAPD, mean age 51 years; and 38 pre-dialysis CKD stage 2-5, mean age 51 years) from north-eastern Poland were enrolled. Dialysis subjects were recruited from a cohort of 141 HD and 61 CAPD patients. Two control groups comprised 26 generally healthy individuals with advanced periodontitis requiring specialized treatment, and 30 subjects from general population. Gingival index (GI), papillary bleeding index (PBI), plaque index (PI), loss of clinical attachment level (CAL) and community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) were determined according to WHO recommendations.


Average values of the indices in HD, CAPD, pre-dialysis CKD, advanced periodontitis and general population subjects were as follows: GI-1.37, 0.95, 1, 2 and 1; PBI-1.45, 0, 0, 2.20 and 1; PI-2.05, 1.59, 1, 2 and 1; and CAL loss-5.11, 3.47, 2.50, 4.68 and 1.40 mm, respectively. CPITN, analysed separately as community periodontal index and periodontal treatment needs, further indicated a high severity of periodontitis in all renal failure groups as compared with general population subjects. The disease was most advanced in maintenance HD patients-comparable to the full-symptomatic form of periodontitis; then it was successively diminished in CAPD and pre-dialysis CKD subjects.


Periodontal disease is prevalent, severe and under recognized in renal failure patients. Prophylaxis and early dental treatment should be intensified in these subjects, and may be of interdisciplinary importance.

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