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Chemosphere. 2007 Feb;67(1):44-50. Epub 2006 Nov 22.

Effect of heavy metal stress on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of two mangrove plant seedlings (Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza).

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South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China.


The effects of multiple heavy metal stress on the activity of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation were studied in leaves and roots of two mangrove plants, Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, grown under control (10 per thousand NaCl nutrient solution) or five levels of multiple heavy metal stress (10 per thousand NaCl nutrient solution containing different concentration of Pb2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+). Leaves and roots of control and heavy metal-stressed plants were harvested after two months. In leaves of heavy metal-stressed plants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities fluctuated in different stress levels compared to the control, while catalase (CAT) activity increased with stress levels in K. candel, but remained unchanged in leaves of B. gymnorrhiza. In comparison with the control, the dynamic tendency of SOD, CAT, and POD activities in roots of heavy metal-stressed plants all ascended, and then declined. The increase in enzyme activities demonstrated that K. candel is more tolerant to heavy metals than B. gymnorrhiza. Lipid peroxidation was enhanced only in leaves of heavy metal-stressed B. gymnorrhiza. These results indicate that in heavy-metal stress antioxidative activities may play an important role in K. candel and B. gymnorrhiza and that cell membrane in leaves and roots of K. candel have greater stability than those of B. gymnorrhiza. For pollution monitoring purposes, POD activity in roots and leaves maybe serve as a biomarker of heavy metal stress in K. candel, while lipid peroxidation maybe serve as biomarker in B. gymnorrhiza.

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