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Mycopathologia. 2006 Nov;162(5):355-62.

Mycobiota in poultry feeds and natural occurrence of aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

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Departamento de Microbiologia e Imunología Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, 23890-000, Brazil.


The intake of mycotoxin-contaminated feeds can lead to nutrient losses and may have adverse effects on animal health and on productivity. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the mycobiota present in poultry feed samples, and (2) to evaluate the natural occurrence of aflatoxin B(1), fumonisin B(1) and zearalenone. Fungal counts were similar between all culture media tested (10(3 )CFU g(-1)). The most frequent genus isolated was Penicillium spp. (41.26%) followed by Aspergillus spp. (33.33%) and Fusarium spp. (20.63%). High precision liquid chromatography was applied to quantify aflatoxin B(1) and fumonisin B(1). Thin layer chromatography was used to determine zearalenone levels. Aflatoxin B(1 )values ranged between 1.2 and 17.5 microg kg(-1). Fumonisin B(1) levels ranged between 1.5 and 5.5 microg g(-1). Zearalenone levels ranged between 0.1 and 7 microg g(-1). The present study shows the simultaneous occurrence of two carcinogenic mycotoxins, aflatoxin B(1) and fumonisin B(1), together with another Fusarium mycotoxin (zearalenone) in feed intended for poultry consumption. Many samples contained AFB(1 )levels near the permissible maximum and it could affect young animals. A synergistic toxic response is possible in animals under simultaneous exposure.

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