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Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 Oct;113(1):35-44.

No meaningful increase in urinary tubular dysfunction markers in a population with 3 microg cadmium/g creatinine in urine.

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Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472, Japan.


The critical Cd exposure level to induce tubular dysfunctions is a focus of public concern among general populations in Japan. To answer this question, one group each (about 1000 adult women/area) in nonpolluted areas with high (Area H) and low Cd exposure (Area L) was obtained, and 742 strictly age-matched pairs of never-smoking adult women were selected for comparison. Cd, alpha1-MG (microglobulin) and beta2- MG in urine were taken as markers of exposure and tubular dysfunction, respectively. Geometric mean Cd levels as corrected for creatinine (Cdcr) was greater than three times higher in Area H (2.8 microg/g cr) than in Area L (0.8 microg/g cr). Nevertheless, beta2-MGcr did not differ between the two areas (125 microg/g cr for Area H vs 118 microg/g cr for Area L). alpha1-MGcr was only marginally higher in Area H (2.8 mg/g cr) than in Area L (2.1 mg/g cr), with no biomedical significance. Results were essentially the same when analyses were conducted with noncorrected observed values or values corrected for a specific gravity. Thus, the effects of Cd exposure in Area H on renal tubular function should be essentially nil.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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