Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Immunol. 2006 Dec 1;177(11):8008-16.

The IFN-independent response to virus particle entry provides a first line of antiviral defense that is independent of TLRs and retinoic acid-inducible gene I.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Center for Gene Therapeutics, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.


The innate immune system responds to pathogen infection by eliciting a nonspecific immune response following the recognition of various pathogen-associated molecular patterns. TLRs and the RNA helicases retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 recognize foreign nucleic acid within endosomal and cytoplasmic compartments, respectively, initiating a signaling cascade that involves the induction of type I IFN through the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 3 and NF-kappaB. However, a recent paradigm has emerged in which bacterial DNA and double-stranded B-form DNA trigger type I IFN production through an uncharacterized TLR- and RIG-I-independent pathway. We have previously described a response in primary fibroblasts wherein the entry of diverse RNA- and DNA-enveloped virus particles is sufficient to induce a subset of IFN-stimulated genes and a complete antiviral response in an IRF3-dependent, IFN-independent manner. In this study, we show that the innate immune response to virus particle entry is independent of both TLR and RIG-I pathways, confirming the existence of novel innate immune mechanisms that result in the activation of IRF3. Furthermore, we propose a model of innate antiviral immunity in which exposure to increasing numbers of virus particles elevates the complexity of the cellular response from an intracellular, IFN-independent response to one involving secretion of cytokines and activation of infiltrating immune cells.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center