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Physiol Behav. 2007 Feb 28;90(2-3):368-75. Epub 2006 Nov 14.

Acute effects of an alcoholic drink on food intake: aperitif versus co-ingestion.

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Department of Psychology, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK.


To compare the effects on appetite and energy intake (EI) within a meal and across 4 days of drinking wine either before (aperitif) or with (co-ingestion) a meal, 11 men attended the laboratory on three occasions. On each occasion participants were given breakfast in the laboratory then 3 h later returned for a two course (garlic bread, pizza) lunch, then recorded food intake for the remainder of the day and the next 3 days. In the control condition, participants ate lunch ad libitum; in the aperitif condition 375 ml of red wine was consumed 20 min before lunch; and in the co-ingestion condition 125 ml of red wine was consumed with the starter and 250 ml of red wine was consumed with the main course. Subjective ratings of appetite and mood were administered before and after the meal. EI at lunch was greater when wine was consumed (p<0.01) (aperitif: 6436+/-435 kJ; co-ingestion: 6254+/-417 kJ) compared to control (5125+/-262 kJ). In particular, intake of the starter was enhanced by wine consumption. Having wine as an aperitif significantly influenced subjective ratings of light headedness and fatigue. These results suggest that the effects of wine on appetite are immediate, and stimulate food intake early in the meal. Total EI during the test days was significantly higher than during subsequent days revealing a tendency to overeat in the laboratory, exacerbated by drinking wine before or with lunch. However, lean healthy men adjusted total EI on the days following the laboratory in all conditions.

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