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Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Feb;73(3):718-29. Epub 2006 Nov 10.

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 fluxome under various oxygen conditions.

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Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.


The central metabolic fluxes of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were examined under carbon-limited (aerobic) and oxygen-limited (microaerobic) chemostat conditions, using 13C-labeled lactate as the sole carbon source. The carbon labeling patterns of key amino acids in biomass were probed using both gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Based on the genome annotation, a metabolic pathway model was constructed to quantify the central metabolic flux distributions. The model showed that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the major carbon metabolism route under both conditions. The Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways were utilized primarily for biomass synthesis (with a flux below 5% of the lactate uptake rate). The anaplerotic reactions (pyruvate to malate and oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate) and the glyoxylate shunt were active. Under carbon-limited conditions, a substantial amount (9% of the lactate uptake rate) of carbon entered the highly reversible serine metabolic pathway. Under microaerobic conditions, fluxes through the TCA cycle decreased and acetate production increased compared to what was found for carbon-limited conditions, and the flux from glyoxylate to glycine (serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase) became measurable. Although the flux distributions under aerobic, microaerobic, and shake flask culture conditions were different, the relative flux ratios for some central metabolic reactions did not differ significantly (in particular, between the shake flask and aerobic-chemostat groups). Hence, the central metabolism of S. oneidensis appears to be robust to environmental changes. Our study also demonstrates the merit of coupling GC-MS with 13C NMR for metabolic flux analysis to reduce the use of 13C-labeled substrates and to obtain more-accurate flux values.

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