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J Formos Med Assoc. 2006 Nov;105(11):918-25.

Factors affecting patient-controlled analgesia requirements.

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Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.



Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) is one of the most widely used postoperative analgesic methods. Many factors could affect the total analgesic consumption of IVPCA. This retrospective study investigated the relationship between patient characteristics and total morphine consumption during a 3-day course of postoperative IVPCA.


Patients receiving surgery under general anesthesia with postoperative IVPCA for 3 days during the period between January 2002 and December 2003 were included. Patient data including age, sex, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), operation type and site were collected. Total morphine consumption was recorded at the end of the 3-day IVPCA course. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted to select factors significantly associated with morphine consumption. Stratified analyses were also conducted among different surgical, BMI and age subgroups.


A total of 1308 patients (646 men, 662 women) were included in the analysis. For all operations, weight, age, procedures involving malignant disease, and surgical sites were significantly associated with total morphine consumption. The R and adjusted R2 values of the selected model were 0.509 and 0.256, respectively. Weight was the only common factor among all stratified analyses (all p < 0.001). Age was negatively correlated with morphine consumption. Gender was not a significant factor except in lower abdominal operations. Height was not associated with total morphine consumption. BMI status was not significantly associated with components of the selected factors.


This study demonstrated that weight and surgical sites significantly influence total IVPCA requirements. The effect of surgical sites should be considered when evaluating the influence of demographic characteristics on IVPCA demand.

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