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Int Rev Cytol. 2006;253:1-26.

Multifunctional arm repeat domains in plants.

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Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B2.


Arm repeat domains are composed of multiple 42 amino acid Arm repeats and are found in the proteomes of all eukaryotic organisms. The Arm repeat domain is a highly conserved right-handed super helix of alpha-helices involved in protein-protein interactions. The well-characterized Arm repeat proteins in animal and plants are known to function in diverse cellular processes including signal transduction, cytoskeletal regulation, nuclear import, transcriptional regulation, and ubiquitination. While Arm repeat domains are found in all eukaryotes, plants have evolved some unique domain organizations, such as the U-box and Arm repeat domain combination, with specialized functions. The plant-specific U-box/Arm repeat proteins are the largest family of Arm repeat proteins in all the genomes surveyed, and more recent data have implicated these proteins as E3 ubiquitin ligases. While functions have not been assigned for most of the plant Arm repeat proteins, recent studies have demonstrated their importance in multiple processes such as self-incompatibility, hormone signaling, and disease resistance.

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