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Biosens Bioelectron. 2007 Apr 15;22(9-10):2171-8. Epub 2006 Nov 13.

Potentiometric bioelectronic tongue for the analysis of urea and alkaline ions in clinical samples.

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Sensors & Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia, Spain.


Urea biosensors based on urease covalently immobilized on to ammonium and hydrogen ion-selective electrodes were included in arrays together with ammonium, potassium, sodium, hydrogen and generic response to alkaline sensors. Response models based on artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least squares (PLS1) were built, tested and compared for the simultaneous determination of urea, ammonium, potassium and sodium. The results show that it is possible to obtain good ANN and PLS calibration models for simultaneous determination of these four species, but with better prediction capability when the ANN are used. The developed bioelectronic tongue was applied to multidetermination in urine samples. The ANN model showed again better agreement with reference methods, allowing a simple direct determination of urea in the real samples without the necessity of eliminating the alkaline interferences, or compensating endogenous ammonium.

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