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Am J Med Genet A. 2006 Dec 1;140(23):2571-6.

GLI2 mutations in four Brazilian patients: how wide is the phenotypic spectrum?

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Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa, USA.


We report four patients with GLI2 mutations together with their associated phenotypes: (1) holoprosencephaly-like phenotype, (2) anophthalmia, branchial arch anomalies, and CNS abnormalities, (3) heminasal aplasia and orbital anomalies, and (4) lobar holoprosencephaly. This diversity of phenotypes expands our understanding. Findings include not only (1) holoprosencephaly or a holoprosencephaly-like phenotype, but also (2) heminasal aplasia with orbital anomalies, and (3) branchial arch anomalies of the type seen in hemifacial microsomia with anophthalmia and in oculoauriculofrontonasal syndrome. Finally, this is the first report of a double mutation involving GLI2 and PTCH in the same patient.

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