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Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;84(5):975-80.

Lupin-enriched bread increases satiety and reduces energy intake acutely.

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School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

Erratum in

  • Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1166.



Protein and fiber may be important determinants of satiety. Lupin kernel flour is a novel food ingredient that is rich in protein and fiber.


The objective was to investigate the effects of lupin kernel flour-enriched bread (LB) on satiety and energy intake in humans.


Two randomized controlled crossover trials were performed to compare the acute effects of LB with those of white bread (WB). In study 1, the subjects (n = 16) completed 4 treatments 1 wk apart: WB breakfast (as toast) and WB lunch (as sandwiches), WB breakfast and LB lunch, LB breakfast and WB lunch, and LB breakfast and LB lunch. Energy intake at all breakfast meals was matched (1655 kJ), and ad libitum energy intake at lunch, 3 h after breakfast, was measured. In study 2, the subjects (n = 17) completed 2 treatments 1 wk apart: WB breakfast and LB breakfast (each 1655 kJ). Blood samples were taken at baseline and at regular intervals for 3 h after breakfast.


In study 1, the LB breakfast resulted in significantly higher self-reported satiety (P < 0.001) and lower energy intake (kJ) at lunch (-488; 95% CI: -798, -178) than did the WB breakfast. The LB lunch resulted in a significantly lower within-meal energy intake (kJ) at lunch (-1028; 95% CI: -1338, -727) than did the WB lunch. In study 2, compared with the WB breakfast, the LB breakfast significantly altered the 3-h postmeal plasma ghrelin response (P = 0.04) and resulted in significantly lower mean 3-h plasma ghrelin concentrations (P = 0.009).


A novel food enriched in protein and fiber derived from lupin kernel flour significantly influences energy intake acutely.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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