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Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006 Nov;12(11):1150-60.

Phase I clinical trial of costimulated, IL-4 polarized donor CD4+ T cells as augmentation of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

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  • 1Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.


The primary objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and biologic effects of administering costimulated, interleukin (IL)-4 polarized donor CD4(+) T cells in the setting of HLA-matched sibling, T cell-replete allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Forty-seven subjects with hematologic malignancy received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants and cyclosporine graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after reduced intensity conditioning. Initial subjects received no additional cells (n = 19); subsequent subjects received additional donor CD4(+) T cells generated ex vivo by CD3/CD28 costimulation in medium containing IL-4 and IL-2 (administered day 1 after HCT at 5, 25, or 125 x 10(6) cells/kg). Studies after HCT included measurement of monocyte IL-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor alpha, detection of T cells with antitumor specificity, and characterization of T cell cytokine phenotype. The culture method generated donor CD4(+) T cells that secreted increased T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines and decreased T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines. Such Th2-like cells were administered without infusional or dose-limiting toxicity. The Th2 cohort had accelerated lymphocyte reconstitution; both cohorts had rapid hematopoietic recovery and alloengraftment. Acute GVHD and overall survival were similar in the Th2 and non-Th2 cohorts. Th2 cell recipients tended to have increased monocyte IL-1alpha and had increased tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion. CD8(+) T cells with antitumor specificity were observed in Th2 and non-Th2 cohorts. Post-transplantation T cells from Th2 cell recipients secreted IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines) and IL-2 and interferon gamma (Th1 cytokines). Allograft augmentation with costimulated, IL-4-polarized donor CD4(+) T cells resulted in activated Th1, Th2, and inflammatory cytokine pathways without an apparent increase in GVHD.

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