Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Exp Gerontol. 2007 Mar;42(3):233-40. Epub 2006 Nov 7.

Increased production of inflammatory cytokines in mild cognitive impairment.

Author information

Center for Neurosurgery Research, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.


Recent studies indicate that chronic inflammation plays a pathogenic role in both the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have screened for cytokines differentially produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild AD subjects who had progressed from MCI using a commercially available cytokine array. Following determination of expressed cytokines, we quantified levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 using flow cytometry. We have found a significant increase in the levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 produced by PBMCs stimulated for 24 h with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in MCI subjects compared to healthy elderly controls. However, in PBMCs stimulated for 48 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lower TNF-alpha/IL-10, IL-6/IL-10, and IL-8/IL-10 ratios were seen in MCI subjects. There were no differences in plasma levels of IL-8 between aged controls, MCI, and mild AD, and the levels of circulating IL-6 and IL-10 were below detection limits. Our data indicate that changes in cytokine production by PBMCs may be detected early in MCI, and an alteration of the immune response may precede clinical AD.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center