Send to

Choose Destination
Haemophilia. 2006 Nov;12(6):654-62.

Histological changes in murine haemophilic synovitis: a quantitative grading system to assess blood-induced synovitis.

Author information

The RUSH Hemophilia and Thrombophilia Center, The Department of Pediatrics, Rush Children's Hospital and Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612-3833, USA.


Haemophilia is a congenital disorder that results in frequent bleeding into joints, in which a chronic and debilitating arthritis develops. The presence of blood evokes an inflammatory and proliferative synovial reaction. Although the molecular mechanisms and biochemical pathways which underlie this disorder are not known, significant advances have been made by studying a murine model of human haemophilic synovitis. In order to better understand and correlate the pathological, molecular and biochemical changes, it has become necessary to grade the histological changes observed. Despite a search of the literature and review of relevant publications, none of the currently utilized schemes were appropriate, and therefore a novel grading scheme was developed. After review of over 1000 histological sections, six characteristic changes were identified: (i) synovial hyperplasia; (ii) vascularity; (iii) discolouration by haemosiderin; (iv) the presence of blood (erythrocytes); (v) villus formation; and (vi) cartilage erosion. Synovial hyperplasia and vascularity were present in variable amounts and were quantitatively scored (0-3), while the other changes were qualitatively scored as absent or present (0 or 1). Application of the grading scheme was tested and a high interobserver correlation (greater than 80%) was found. The scheme was easy to learn even by novices, with no prior experience. The availability of the histological grading scheme for murine synovitis will allow for precise evaluation of the pathological changes following joint bleeding, and facilitate correlations with molecular and biochemical changes that lead to these changes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center