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World J Urol. 2006 Nov;24(5):489-98.

Use of nomograms as predictive tools in bladder cancer.

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Division of Urology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Kimmel Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers, 353 E. 68th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA.


Bladder cancer is a common genitourinary malignancy that demonstrates a great variation in risk of tumor recurrence and progression following treatment. The dramatic differences in clinical behavior dictate vastly differing treatments, which may range from simple surveillance to combination radical surgery with systemic chemotherapy. For non-muscle invasive bladder cancer prediction of the risk of recurrence and progression is necessary to assess the need for intravesical therapy and possible early cystectomy. In contrast, prediction of advanced disease response to primary treatment such as cystectomy and the response to systemic chemotherapy plays an important role in treatment assignment for patients with muscle invasive disease. To estimate these risk traditional risk grouping schemes such as the present TNM staging system has been used to guide patient treatment. More recently, improved prognostic tools such as nomograms have been developed to provide a more accurate assessment of outcomes. Clinicians are enthusiastically working to utilize these statistical methods in bladder cancer. We summarize the current status of outcome predictive models for bladder cancer; and focus particularly on the ability of nomograms to predict disease recurrence, progression, and patient survival.

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