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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;45(11):1338-1345. doi: 10.1097/S0890-8567(09)61916-X.

Smoking during pregnancy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive type: a case-control study.

Author information

1
Dr. Schmitz, Denardin, Silva, Pianca, Hutz, and Rohde are with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Dr. Faraone is with Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY.
2
Dr. Schmitz, Denardin, Silva, Pianca, Hutz, and Rohde are with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Dr. Faraone is with Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY.. Electronic address: lrohde@terra.com.br.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Few previous studies assessed specifically attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) in nonreferred samples. This study investigated the association between ADHD-I and prenatal exposure to nicotine.

METHOD:

In a case-control study performed between September 2002 and April 2005, we assessed a nonreferred Brazilian sample of 100 children and adolescents with ADHD-I and 100 non-ADHD controls (6-18 years old). Cases and controls, matched by gender and age, were screened using teacher reports in the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV (SNAP-IV) scale. They were systematically evaluated through structured diagnostic interviews. Prenatal exposure to nicotine and potential confounding factors were evaluated by direct interview with mothers.

RESULTS:

Adjusting for confounding factors (maternal ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, birth weight, and alcohol use during pregnancy), children whose mothers smoked>or=10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy presented a significantly higher odds ratio for ADHD-I than children who were not exposed to nicotine during pregnancy (odds ratio 3.44; 95% confidence interval 1.17-10.06). Dimensional analyses showed significantly higher inattentive scores in subjects whose mothers smoked>or=10 cigarettes per day than in others after adjusting for confounding factors (p=.002).

CONCLUSIONS:

In a nonreferred sample, the authors expanded to ADHD-I previous findings documenting the association between prenatal exposure to nicotine and broadly defined ADHD in clinical samples.

PMID:
17075356
DOI:
10.1097/S0890-8567(09)61916-X
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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