Send to

Choose Destination
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;45(11):1338-45.

Smoking during pregnancy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive type: a case-control study.

Author information

Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, and Serviço de Psiquiatria da Infância e Adolescência, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil.



Few previous studies assessed specifically attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) in nonreferred samples. This study investigated the association between ADHD-I and prenatal exposure to nicotine.


In a case-control study performed between September 2002 and April 2005, we assessed a nonreferred Brazilian sample of 100 children and adolescents with ADHD-I and 100 non-ADHD controls (6-18 years old). Cases and controls, matched by gender and age, were screened using teacher reports in the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV (SNAP-IV) scale. They were systematically evaluated through structured diagnostic interviews. Prenatal exposure to nicotine and potential confounding factors were evaluated by direct interview with mothers.


Adjusting for confounding factors (maternal ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, birth weight, and alcohol use during pregnancy), children whose mothers smoked>or=10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy presented a significantly higher odds ratio for ADHD-I than children who were not exposed to nicotine during pregnancy (odds ratio 3.44; 95% confidence interval 1.17-10.06). Dimensional analyses showed significantly higher inattentive scores in subjects whose mothers smoked>or=10 cigarettes per day than in others after adjusting for confounding factors (p=.002).


In a nonreferred sample, the authors expanded to ADHD-I previous findings documenting the association between prenatal exposure to nicotine and broadly defined ADHD in clinical samples.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center