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J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 5;282(1):216-31. Epub 2006 Oct 29.

Kinetic mechanism of human myosin IIIA.

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  • 1Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.


Myosin IIIA is specifically expressed in photoreceptors and cochlea and is important for the phototransduction and hearing processes. In addition, myosin IIIA contains a unique N-terminal kinase domain and C-terminal tail actin-binding motif. We examined the kinetic properties of baculovirus expressed human myosin IIIA containing the kinase, motor, and two IQ domains. The maximum actin-activated ATPase rate is relatively slow (k(cat) = 0.77 +/- 0.08 s(-1)), and high actin concentrations are required to fully activate the ATPase rate (K(ATPase) = 34 +/- 11 microm). However, actin co-sedimentation assays suggest that myosin III has a relatively high steady-state affinity for actin in the presence of ATP (K(actin) approximately 7 microm). The rate of ATP binding to the motor domain is quite slow both in the presence and absence of actin (K(1)k(+2) = 0.020 and 0.001 microm(-1).s(-1), respectively). The rate of actin-activated phosphate release is more than 100-fold faster (85 s(-1)) than the k(cat), whereas ADP release in the presence of actin follows a two-step mechanism (7.0 and 0.6 s(-1)). Thus, our data suggest a transition between two actomyosin-ADP states is the rate-limiting step in the actomyosin III ATPase cycle. Our data also suggest the myosin III motor spends a large fraction of its cycle in an actomyosin ADP state that has an intermediate affinity for actin (K(d) approximately 5 microm). The long lived actomyosin-ADP state may be important for the ability of myosin III to function as a cellular transporter and actin cross-linker in the actin bundles of sensory cells.

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