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J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 22;281(51):39105-13. Epub 2006 Oct 27.

Disruption of an SP2/KLF6 repression complex by SHP is required for farnesoid X receptor-induced endothelial cell migration.

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Gastroenterology Research Unit, Department of Physiology and Cancer Cell Biology Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.


The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling pathway regulates bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate, using a variety of gain- and loss-of-function approaches, a role of FXR in the process of cell motility, which involves the small heterodimeric partner (SHP)-dependent up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9. We use this observation to reveal a transcriptional regulatory mechanism involving the SP/KLF transcription factors, SP2 and KLF6. Small interference RNA-based silencing studies in combination with promoter, gel shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicate that SP2 and KLF6 bind to the matrix metalloproteinase-9 promoter and together function to maintain this gene in a silenced state. However, upon activation of FXR, SHP interacts with SP2 and KLF6, disrupting the SP2/KLF6 repressor complex. Thus, together, these studies identify a mechanism for antagonizing Sp/KLF protein repression function via SHP, with this process regulating endothelial cell motility.

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