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Injury. 2006 Dec;37(12):1098-108. Epub 2006 Oct 30.

Head injury outcome prediction: a role for protein S-100B?

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Emergency Department, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull HU3 2JZ, UK.



Prediction of the likely outcome of head injury from the outset would allow early rehabilitation to be targeted at those with most to gain. Clinical evaluation of a head injured patient may be confounded by intoxicants such as alcohol. Imaging modalities are insensitive (CT) or impractical (MR) for screening populations of such patients. A peripheral marker that reflected the extent of brain injury might offer an objective indication of likely adverse sequelae. This review evaluates the evidence for Protein S-100B as such a marker.


A search of published literature revealed 18 studies designed to evaluate the relation between serum S-100B and measures of outcome after head injury.


A cut-off point of 2.5microg/L is related to dependent disability in those presenting with low conscious level, and may be a specific test for this. There appears to be a relation between initial serum S-100B concentration and measures of disability as well as post-concussion symptoms for those with seemingly mild injuries. There does not appear to be a relation between S-100B and measures of neuropsychological performance.


Patients with high levels of S-100B at initial assessment (>2.5microg/L) may represent a high risk group for disability after head trauma.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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