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Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2006 Jul 1;44(13):878-81.

[Surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombus in inferior vena cava].

[Article in Chinese]

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Department of Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Medical College of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016, China.



To review the experience for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombus in inferior vena cava.


From July 2003 to May 2005, hepatectomy combined with thrombectomy were performed on 7 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombus in inferior vena cava. In order to remove the tumor thrombus in inferior vena cava, total hepatic vascular exclusion were adopted on all cases to control the blood flow of IVC. According to the position of extension of tumor thrombus, 5 different procedures were adopted in the cases to control the suprahepatic IVC and extract the tumor thrombus out of IVC and atrium. Procedure 1: Median sternotomy, extracorporeal bypass, cardiac arrest, incision on right atrium and IVC were performed on 1 case for thrombectomy. Procedure 2: Median sternotomy, extracorporeal bypass without cardiac arrest, incision on IVC and (or without) incision on right atrium were performed on 2 cases for thrombectomy. Procedure 3: Abdominal approach to control intrapericardial IVC through an incision on diaphragm was performed on 1 case for thrombectomy. Procedure 4: Abdominal approach to control suprahepatic IVC above diaphragm through a small incision made on vena cava foramen for thrombectomy was performed on 1 case. Procedure 5: Abdominal approaches to control suprahepatic IVC below diaphragm for thrombectomy were performed on 2 cases.


All operations were successfully performed. The postoperative complications included pleural effusion in 1 case, subphrenic fluid collection in 1 case and wound infection in 1 case. The average survival time of 7 cases was 9.8 month. The longest survival time was 26 months.


Hepatectomy and thrombectomy can be safely performed on the case of HCC combined with tumor thrombus in IVC. Surgical treatment can relieve the patient from the risk of sudden death caused by heart failure and pulmonary.

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