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Nat Med. 2006 Nov;12(11):1316-22. Epub 2006 Oct 22.

Humanized mice mount specific adaptive and innate immune responses to EBV and TSST-1.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.


Here we show that transplantation of autologous human hematopoietic fetal liver CD34+ cells into NOD/SCID mice previously implanted with human fetal thymic and liver tissues results in long-term, systemic human T-cell homeostasis. In addition, these mice show systemic repopulation with human B cells, monocytes and macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs). T cells in these mice generate human major histocompatibility complex class I- and class II-restricted adaptive immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and are activated by human DCs to mount a potent T-cell immune response to superantigens. Administration of the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) results in the specific systemic expansion of human Vbeta2+ T cells, release of human proinflammatory cytokines and localized, specific activation and maturation of human CD11c+ dendritic cells. This represents the first demonstration of long-term systemic human T-cell reconstitution in vivo allowing for the manifestation of the differential response by human DCs to TSST-1.

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