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Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2007 Sep;68(1):84-90. Epub 2006 Oct 20.

Effects of bisphenol A and ethynyl estradiol exposure on enzyme activities, growth and development in the fourth instar larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

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Faculty of Environmental Engineering, College of Urban Science, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-Dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-743, Korea.


This study was conducted to determine the toxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and ethynyl estradiol (EE), well-known endocrine disruptors, on Chironomus riparius under controlled laboratory conditions. Mortality, enzyme activities, and growth/development parameters were studied as acute, biochemical, and physiological toxicities, respectively. The results of the present study showed activation of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase after BPA and EE exposure, as well as increased emergence failure after EE exposure. This study on the effects of BPA and EE on C. riparius can be an important addition to the knowledge that has been obtained regarding the toxicology of BPA and EE in aquatic organism, on which limited data are available. The data obtained from this study, however, are not sufficient to establish any correlation or casual relationship between these two compounds and the response of C. riparius. Thus, further research is required to come up with direct experimental demonstrations of the wider relationship between the biochemical effects of BPA and EE on C. riparius and their consequences at higher levels of biological organization.

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