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Hum Reprod. 2007 Jan;22(1):75-82. Epub 2006 Oct 19.

Effects of urinary and recombinant gonadotrophins on gene expression profiles during the murine peri-implantation period.

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  • 1Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research/Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands.



Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with urinary gonadotrophins but not recombinant gonadotrophins, adversely affect the implantation process. In this study, we investigated the effects of urinary and recombinant gonadotrophins on gene expression profiles at implantation sites during the mouse peri-implantation period and the possible molecular mechanisms involved in the detrimental effects of urinary gonadotrophins using microarray technology.


Adult female CD1 mice were treated with (i) urinary human FSH (hFSH) and urinary HCG, (ii) recombinant hFSH and recombinant human LH or (iii) saline. Gene expression profiling with GeneChip mouse genome 430 2.0 arrays, containing 45 101 probe sets, was performed using implantation sites on embryonic day 5. Data were statistically analysed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays. Ten genes from the microarray analysis were selected for validation using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). A parallel group of pregnant mice was allowed to give birth to study the effect of gonadotrophins on resorption.


Urinary gonadotrophins differentially up-regulated the expression of 30 genes, increased resorption and reduced litter size, whereas recombinant gonadotrophins did not. Nine of the 10 genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR.


Urinary gonadotrophins, but not recombinant gonadotrophins, exerted differential effects on gene expression during the murine peri-implantation period. These findings might contribute to improve protocols for COS, leading to higher successful pregnancy rates.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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