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J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jan;320(1):266-73. Epub 2006 Oct 18.

Identification and functional analysis of common human flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 genetic variants.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd., Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.


Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are important for the disposition of many therapeutics, environmental toxicants, and nutrients. FMO3, the major adult hepatic FMO enzyme, exhibits significant interindividual variation. Eighteen FMO3 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies were determined in 202 Hispanics (Mexican descent), 201 African Americans, and 200 non-Latino whites. Using expressed recombinant enzyme with methimazole, trimethylamine, sulindac, and ethylenethiourea, the novel structural variants FMO3 E24D and K416N were shown to cause modest changes in catalytic efficiency, whereas a third novel variant, FMO3 N61K, was essentially devoid of activity. The latter variant was present at an allelic frequency of 5.2% in non-Latino whites and 3.5% in African Americans, but it was absent in Hispanics. Inferring haplotypes using PHASE, version 2.1, the greatest haplotype diversity was observed in African Americans followed by non-Latino whites and Hispanics. Haplotype 2A and 2B, consisting of a hypermorphic promoter SNP cluster (-2650C>G, -2543T>A, and -2177G>C) in linkage with synonymous structural variants was inferred at a frequency of 27% in the Hispanic population, but only 5% in non-Latino whites and African Americans. This same promoter SNP cluster in linkage with one or more hypomorphic structural variant also was inferred in multiple haplotypes at a total frequency of 5.6% in the African-American study group but less than 1% in the other two groups. The sum frequencies of the hypomorphic haplotypes H3 [15,167G>A (E158K)], H5B [-2650C>G, 15,167G>A (E158K), 21,375C>T (N285N), 21,443A>G (E308G)], and H6 [15,167G>A (E158K), 21,375C>T (N285N)] was 28% in Hispanics, 23% in non-Latino whites, and 24% in African Americans.

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