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Enhancement of infectious disease vaccines through TLR9-dependent recognition of CpG DNA.

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Coley Pharmaceutical Group, Inc., 93 Worcester Street, Suite 101, Wellesley, MA 02481, USA.


The adaptive immune system-with its remarkable ability to generate antigen-specific antibodies and T lymphocytes against pathogens never before "seen" by an organism-is one of the marvels of evolution. However, to generate these responses, the adaptive immune system requires activation by the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are perhaps the best-understood family of innate immune receptors for detecting infections and stimulating adaptive immune responses. TLR9 appears to have evolved to recognize infections by a subtle structural difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic/viral DNA; only the former frequently methylates CpG dinucleotides. Used as vaccine adjuvants, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) ligands for TLR9--CpG ODN--greatly enhance the speed and strength of the immune responses to vaccination.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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